Tips for the prevention and treatment of mountain sickness 2

Alpine disease is a big problem that people should take seriously in mountain activities. According to statistics, about half of all healthy people entering altitudes of 3,000 to 5,000 meters will develop various mountain diseases. In addition to falls and avalanches, alpine disease is the third most important cause of fatal mountaineering accidents. In addition, mountain sickness is an important reason for climbers to stop climbing. As a result of mountain reactions, unsteady walking, unstable walking, lack of judgment and balance ability, unclear consciousness is also an important reason for slipping. The root cause of mountain sickness is the lack of oxygen in the mountains, which can cause a series of dysfunctions and tissue damage.
When you are active in the mountains, you should be vigilant to ask yourself if you have physical discomfort. Have you got alpine disease? Before climbing, you should learn some basic knowledge and how to deal with the problems that you may face.

The most common mountain sickness is acute mountain reaction. Sensitive people may have some mild alpine reactions at 1,800 meters or so, such as fatigue, panting during exercise, and so on. Usually there is a clear mountain reaction above 3,000 meters. Rapid (e.g., flying) to 3,000 meters above sea level is more susceptible to acute mountain reactions. Alpine reactions are not all "diseases," and are more of a physiological function of "incompatibility." Below 5,800 meters, most people can adapt to different levels of mountains, but some people can not adapt. Acute mountain reaction usually occurs 6 to 12 hours after reaching high altitude, a few occur within 1 to 3 days, and generally recovers within 3 to 7 days. The disease can last for more than 2 weeks.

The performance of acute alpine reactions are: headache, dizziness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, chest pain, dry cough, heart, general weakness, edema, and insomnia. Mild alpine reactions often resemble colds and are easily overlooked and cannot be dealt with properly.

Tips: 1. If you do not find the symptoms of “cold” on the mountain, if there is no obvious fever (alpine reaction can have low fever), runny nose, cough, stuffy nose, etc., you should consider whether it is alpine reaction. Of course, cold medicines are also effective in treating headaches that respond to alpine reactions.

Acute mountain reactions are sometimes difficult to avoid and are often a painful process that must be experienced when climbing. However, some precautionary measures should be taken to reduce the altitude reaction, or to react rashly in high altitudes to low altitudes, and even to a certain extent, no alpine reactions occur.

[secret 2] Knowing yourself and knowing yourself actively and reasonably. The one who knows the other is to know that alpine reactions may occur in the mountains and what the alpine reaction looks like. Knowing it will not panic and calm. The confidante is to understand its own base and take targeted measures. Such as physical training before climbing, to prevent upper respiratory tract infection, just arrived at the plateau must control the rhythm of the exercise, so as "the elderly", the amount of exercise should be just right, can not be too strong. At the same time, it should be noted that mental and emotional problems such as tension and anxiety will inevitably aggravate the mountain reaction. You may have heard many such stories from the old mountaineers.

Actively and reasonably adapting, simply speaking, is a positive attitude and proper method. A little uncomfortable sleeping or unknowingly running or hard-drying can trigger or aggravate the mountain reaction. Adaptation can not be fat into a stuttering, it must be achieved gradually. Our experience is that in the case of 3,000 meters or more, it is generally necessary to adapt to one night for every 500 meters of rise. If it cannot be adapted, it is necessary to suspend the rise. This is particularly true for the first time climbers. Below 7,000 meters, it is generally necessary to carry out 2 to 3 repeated adaptations. It is also necessary to adjust and improve the nutrition structure. The proportion of carbohydrates in the diet should be increased, accounting for more than 60%, and increase the intake of various vitamins. There are many drug prevention methods, but many of them lack double-blind comparative studies. The author does not propose to advocate. Only introduce two proven drugs. Compound Dangshen Tablets were taken 2 days before the peak, 8 tablets per day, and the effective rate of prevention was 80%. Acetazolamide is taken 1 to 2 days before entering the plateau, 250 mg each time, twice daily, for 3 to 4 consecutive days. Occasionally there are some side effects, those who have sulfa allergy are cautioned or avoided. The main treatment is to adjust to health, the role of drugs is to ease the pain and help you tide over difficulties.

Tips 3: For different situations, low-flow oxygen can be used as appropriate, 1 to 2 liters per minute, pain tablets 1 to 2 tablets, and 2 to 3 capsules per day. It is best to choose a small variety for gastrointestinal stimulation. Drugs such as domperidone can help improve digestive function. Analgesic sedatives, eat 1 to 2 tablets each time. Diuretic can be used when edema, aminophylline can ease the diuretic effect, and can reduce symptoms such as breathing difficulties, each 100 mg, 2 or 3 times a day.

Tip 4 The most terrible mountain diseases are alpine brain edema and alpine pulmonary edema. In fact, they can also be said to have developed a serious degree of mountain reaction. The mortality rate is high and we must pay enough attention and vigilance. Their general performance is similar to that of acute alpine reactions. The most prominent of these symptoms is that these symptoms are more severe and difficult to relieve naturally. Generally, the treatment is ineffective and continues to increase. We must seize its characteristics, recognize it as soon as possible, and deal with it as soon as possible to save one's life. Please remember their characteristics:

* Alpine brain edema: severe headache, to an unbearable degree. Severe vomiting, spray-like. Obstacles to mental consciousness, malaise, lethargy, unresponsiveness, and gradual loss of consciousness.

* Takayama pulmonary edema: In addition to severe headache and vomiting, fatigue, chest tightness, chest pain, etc., most of them have severe cough, difficulty in breathing, and phlegm. The typical sputum is thin pink, white or bloody foamy pimple, lip The face is bluish-purple, and there is a lot of wet rales in the lungs. In severe cases, you can hear the sound of water boiling. What deserves vigilance is "burst-type acute alpine pulmonary edema." Its development process is not obvious, and the patient quickly enters a coma and sudden death.
Rescuing cerebral edema and pulmonary edema in the hospital is a complicated matter. In the difficult conditions in the mountains, remember the words "early" and "fast." That is, the two key links of identification and escort patient withdrawal are as soon as possible, the better the effect. In alpine adventures, emergency oxygen and emergency medicine are essential on the mountains. Once the patient is found, what can be done to non-professionals is to immediately give the patient a high flow of oxygen, and immediately take furosemide two tablets and retire to a safe place as soon as possible.

The four "secret tips" mentioned above are provided for non-professional medical personnel. When there is a lack of medical services in the mountains, they should deal with some common and major problems of mountain sickness and emergency measures. This is not the only way. Alpine-specific diseases include alpine heart disease, high mountain hypertension, and alpine bleeding syndrome. There are also very systematic requirements for treatment. Therefore, it is best to have a doctor in a large mountain climbing event. There are also some diseases that are prone to occur in high mountain conditions, such as snow blindness, dermatitis, frostbite, acne, etc., but these are not endemic to alpine disease and can occur in other environments. Prevention and treatment are similar to non-alpine areas. .

There are cracks and traps in the mountains, and the crisis is everywhere. But it is not so terrible. Wang Fuzhou, Qu Yinhua, and Kampot went to Mount Everest on May 24, 1960. From 8830 meters to 8848 meters, the difference was 14 meters and the distance was 50 meters. It took them more than four hours to climb up and climb from the top. Down to 8800 meters, shared more than 6 hours. In these more than six hours, they were exhausted and did not use a little oxygen, but they finally defeated the threat of death and returned with victory. There is also an 18-year-old boy who travels free of charge in the landing gear of a DC-6 aircraft with no pressure equipment. He flew for 9 hours at an altitude of 8,800 meters. When the plane landed, he was in a coma but he was still unconscious. coming. This is a miracle of two deaths. Inspired by them, in recent years, some mountaineers represented by Messner have used scientific methods to purposely carry out anaerobic climbing and have also achieved the ability to expand human physiology. Great success.

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