Simplified edition of "Mountaineering Bible" #6: Tips for climbing ice

Ice climbing tips (from pages 430-435)

Climbing ice is an exciting activity that combines the ever-changing climbing objects and the cold environment that challenges you physically and mentally. If rock climbers go to engage in ice climbing, they will find striking similarities between the two types of activities; climbers are using their legs to support themselves and shift their weight from one balance point to another; It is planned in advance several steps, "eyes" to climb again. Like rock climbing, climbing ice must use the characteristics of the surface of the formation, looking for grooves, mountain walls, protruding terrain for hands, feet and holding firmly, and finding flat places to knock in ice tools. Of course, the difference between the two is equally astonishing. Ice climbers must use heavy hand climbing tools and crampons to learn how to use what might ensure the device and may not be a solid protection. The objects they climb are not only changing all day, they are constantly changing throughout the season.

Do not climb crampons

People who climb high mountains often encounter a small area of ​​ice or frozen snow. Crossing these roads without wearing crampons requires balancing from side to side, shifting body weight from one equilibrium position to another. Each time you balance, your inner foot (ie the front foot) should step on the front of the outer foot (back foot), and in order to reduce the force of the muscles, your hind legs should be straightened so that most of the weight is placed behind On the skeleton of the leg. Hold the hail on the front of the hand. When the body and both legs are balanced, move forward. Your legs must move after the hail moves forward. While climbing, you should pay attention to whether there is any unevenness on the ice surface as a foothold.

Cut Ice Level

For the early alpine climbers, Step-Cutting is the only technique available when climbing steep ice and hard snow. After the invention of the crampons, the climbers did not need to use ice cut technology, but this demand was not completely eliminated. Climbers may still encounter ice in the absence of crampons, or they may only have a short distance on the ice and are not worth the time to wear crampons. In addition, when the crampons were broken, the climbers were injured or their experience was not enough, they all became the reason for using ice cuts. Even if you wear crampons, you may be willing to cut a small step with a hail to make your feet more stable, or as a small platform to rest. Simply cutting out a comfortable platform to use is enough to justify your understanding of this technique.

There are two ways to cut out the steps using the flat head of the ice. You can make a step (Fig. 15-10) by slashing it almost parallel to the ground, or dig out a step that resembles a small grid hole by moving perpendicular to the ice. If the ice is soft, the hail's pick-ups often have the help to cut out the steps: just smooth the wave and cut into the snow and ice. When you cut a step, be sure to attach the hail to your wrist with a wrist strap. This will help you support your hand and avoid losing the hail when you miss it.

The most commonly used slashing technique is the slashing method, which swings the hail up and down on gentle or slightly angled slopes (up to 30 degrees). If you are going up the hill, stand in a balanced position first, hold the hailstone in the front hand (hand on the mountain), and swing your shoulder away from your body in parallel with the front foot (Figure 15-11). When you are waving a hail, you have to use your shoulders to cut ice with the hail's flat head and use the weight of the hail. If it is a harder ice surface, you have to use more muscle power, or you may have to use both hands. After continuous slashing, remove the ice on the steps: from the heel to the toes. Use ice axes to flatten the pile of crushed ice and shovel it off, and then complete the steps with flat heads and picks.

The general procedure is to cut out two steps in a balanced position, use the ice to stabilize yourself, move up to another equilibrium position, and then cut out two steps. The hail must never be waved to your body, because sometimes an inadvertent, hazy flat head may be bounced off the ice and hit your leg. If the slope is gentle, the climber will usually knock out an oblique step. However, if it is a moderate slope, because the balance is more difficult, it is necessary to knock out two parallel walking steps. The steps of the small grid apply to steeper slopes.

Each sloped step should be slightly curved inward to avoid slipping your boots. On gentle slopes, it may not matter if the steps only accommodate a small portion of your boots, but if the slope is steep, the space in the steps should be large enough to accommodate your entire boot. The spacing of steps is easy to use for all your teammates. When you walk through a series of ramps to prepare for a change of direction, you must knock out a place that holds two feet to stand still and use it as a turning and changing hand for hail.

For hard ice surfaces that are prone to friction, first cut the ice picks into the ice in parallel motions to determine the bottom position of the steps so as not to damage the footings when the flat heads are cut. If you pull the hail out of the ice after you cut it into the ice, the pick will not get stuck in the ice but will cut it down.

To climb a steep straight wall, use a step with a small grid. The distance between each step is about the width of the shoulders. It should be easy to tread (Figure 15-12). These steps are both hand-climbing and footing, so each step must be large enough to accommodate the first half of the boots and have a small notch to facilitate climbing (Figure 15-13). Swipe a step first, then tap into the depth you want, and tap a flat head of ice to make a notch.

If you decide to cut a step when you go downhill, the easiest way is to cut down a step step that goes straight downhill (Figure 15-14). If you want to cut out two steps at a time, first stand in a balanced position, face down and look down the slope, cut two steps in succession immediately below your standing position, and then step out of the outer foot (the foot that is facing down ), then step out of the inner foot (the back of the foot). If you decide to cut one level at a time, still stand still in a balanced position. Cut out the steps of the outer foot (the foot that is facing down). After you step down, press the inner foot (the foot behind). Step, step out again. (Climbers may prefer to hang the ice slope down the ropes instead of cutting the steps.)

Cutting steps on slippery ice is both difficult and difficult, and it is often in high places, so your body usually needs to ensure that the technology is protected. Using emergency slashing techniques in an emergency can save you a life, and the only way to have this skill is to spend time practicing.

Climbing in crampons

Ice climbers often use two basic techniques, depending on the degree of steepness of the slope, the condition of the ice, the technical ability, and the level of confidence. The two techniques are French technique and German technique respectively. Although each has its own advantages, modern ice climbing enthusiasts must integrate two kinds. In other words, you must familiarize yourself with French and German techniques in ice climbing in a highly varied mountain environment.

French skills (foot landing)

The easiest and most efficient way to climb and ease into steep ice or hard snow is French skills - if you really do. Good French skills not only need a sense of balance and rhythm, but also have confidence in the use of crampons and hail.

German-style technique (forepaw climbing)

This technique for climbing the front claws was invented by Germans and Austrians for climbing harder snow and ice walls on the eastern side of the Alps. Experienced ice climbers can climb the steepest and most dangerous ice peaks, and even ordinary climbers can use this technique to quickly overcome road sections that are difficult or impossible to overcome with French techniques. The movement of the forepaw climbing is the opposite of the complicated footwork, simple and uncomplicated. It is similar to the step of climbing the slope of the snow, but instead of using your boots to kick it into the snow, it kicks into the ice with the claws of the crampons and stands directly on it. A good forepaw climbing movement is like a French technique. It requires not only a sense of balance and rhythm, but also the weight of the body on crampons. Whether it's kicking the tip of a crampon into ice, installing tools, or climbing on ice, the agility of the action is important.

Modern skills

The modern crampon technique evolved from French and German techniques. Like rock climbing, the pace you take when climbing the ice must be agile and decided to maintain balance and reduce fatigue. The footsteps of the crampons usually apply to slopes with lower angles and grounds that are easy to step in. The forepaws' footwork is steeper than a 45-degree angle, and it is most commonly used on very hard ice fields. In fact, most climbers use these two techniques in combination, and some people call them American skills. Whichever type you use, the most important thing is to use the crampons when you need to be clear. Practicing on low or moderate slopes can help develop your skills, confidence, and make you more agile on steeper slopes.

No matter whether German or French techniques are used, skilled ice climbers will be cautious and careful when they climb the hard rock. When kicking the claws of the crampon onto the ice, be careful and be clear and smooth when moving from one foot to the other. Being bold is a necessary condition for a clever cramping technique. Where you are currently staying and not ignoring it, your mind must be completely focused on the action you have climbed. However, boldness is not blind bravery; it is generated through time and enthusiasm. It is the confidence and skill developed after practicing many times on ice and freezing the ice peaks in the valley. The degree of difficulty has grown more mature.

Compilation proofreader special note: This article is compiled from the Taiwan version of "Mountaineering Bible", content for the mountain friends reference, not for commercial use. Hereby inform.

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