Valley Activity Damage Type

Previous posts: President, National Chiao Tung University Taichung Mountaineering
Incumbent: Chairman of Changhua County Mountaineering Association Upstream Committee
Director of China Mountain Difficulties Assistance Association
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Foreword

Looking at the development of mankind's civilization, all are originated from streams. Therefore, the relationship between mankind and streams has been very close since ancient times. In modern civilization, streams still play an important role in cultivating humanity. Because humans have long relied on rivers for survival, it is inevitable that there will be some valley damages, and the types of damage will vary depending on the geographical environment, climate, society, economy, and culture in which the ethnic groups live. The following reports on the theme of the upstream activity that has been closely related to the mountaineering community in recent years, and because of personal contact with the river, the number of streams traced back to the river is also very short. Therefore, they are still learning both technically and empirically. At the stage, it is unavoidable that there are some omissions, mistakes, or inappropriateness in the content. Please also ask seniors and advanced people to correct them.
The up-stream movement in Taiwan was introduced in the 71st year of the Republic of China by the Osaka Sandals Association of Japan. In the Republic of China in 1972, the first upstream group “Changhua Upstream Club” was founded by the teacher of the Mountaineering Association of Huanghua County in Changhua County. Two years later, the Republic of China’s Mountain Association also established the “Taipei Upstream Club” to jointly promote Taiwan’s Upstream sports.
If it is to stage the river upstream in Taiwan, it can be roughly divided into the introduction period, the promotion period, the expansion period, the peak period and the recession period. Since the Japanese began to come to Taiwan to trace the old Five Sacred Mountains back to Taiwan, it can be said for the introduction period, this period mainly in Taiwan's upstream predecessors from the enlightenment to absorb Japan's river upstream skills and concepts focus. However, from the time that the Chinese people accompany the Japanese team to complete the retreat of the old Five Sacred Mountains of Taiwan, it can be said that it has entered the promotion period. Over the past few years, under the continuous promotion of the older generation of rivers, the population of Taiwan's rivers has increased rapidly. Therefore, mountain friends who are interested in upstream activities have also begun to discuss the injury and prevention of the valley movement, such as the rescue of the mountain in the Republic of China. Every year, the Association regularly conducts valley search and rescue training. Through experience and technical exchanges from all walks of life, we can minimize the damage caused by the canyon and make Taiwan's upstream activities more mature.

Chapter 1 Damage Caused by Human Factors
The damage caused by human factors can be roughly divided into two kinds: harm caused by lack of technology and experience, and harm caused by human negligence. These two kinds of injuries often affect each other, which is the so-called negligence, sometimes caused by the lack of personal and group skills and experience. The same, experience, technology and personal mentality often lead to negligence and cause harm. Common injuries caused by human factors include: falling, drowning, slipping, trivial tributaries, lost secrets, loss of temperature, and other injuries.

Fall or fall in the first quarter
There are many reasons for falling or falling. Here are some of the more likely to occur.

First, slide off when climbing or walking on the shore
Causes: Most of the rocks are slippery, and there are no good handle points and footing points.
Responsive mode: (1) Choose a good and reliable handle and foothold.
(2) Use equipment to help ensure common use.
(3) Avoid the slippery difficult route and pass the small high winding method.

Second, fall when high winding
Reasons: It will encounter difficult points such as waterfalls, large deep pools, etc., but it is often steep cliffs on both sides of waterfalls and deep pools. Therefore, it is easy to fall due to climbing during high winding. Therefore, the high waterfall is one of the most dangerous factors in upstream activities.
Responsive mode: (1) As far as possible when the high winding back to the downstream some distance, in the two sides of the land is not steeper and then high.
(2) When high winding, it is necessary to pay attention to whether the handle point and the footing point are firm. Like dry branches and loose rocks are very dangerous.
(3) When winding high and low cuts, care must be taken to fall due to loss of balance, especially when carrying heavy loads.
(4) It is best to make a rope team if necessary.

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