China has a long history of book-binding technology, and it is the earliest book-binding technology in the world. As early as the Yin and Shang dynasties in 1600 BC, China used the turtle shell's plastron and the scapula of cattle and sheep as book materials, which were engraved with text (oracle bone inscriptions) and then tied into books. After a long period of more than 3,000 years, more than 10 forms of binding have been reformed and continue to the present, so that the book binding technology is basically complete.
After entering the 1990s, China's post-press binding technology has entered a new stage of development. A period of change that comprehensively moves closer to international standards and strives to reach an advanced level in the short term.
After the 1990s, short-version books, hardcover books, special-shaped special processing publications and refined publications using new materials have gradually increased, and the post-press binding process technology is developing in the direction of high, precision and sharpness. The processing of high-end high-end books is increasing; the use of fine materials is increasing; the processing of new products with sharp fingers is increasing.
1. Increased number of hardcover bookbinding processes
According to incomplete statistics, the processing volume of hardcover books has increased by nearly 40 times since the 1990s. It turned out that some remote areas without hardcover processing are now also in hardcover, and the growth rate is very fast. With the increase in the processing volume of hardcover books and the improvement of technology in various regions, almost all have their own treasures and masterpieces. Typical examples are Beijing-bound "Twenty-four History" and "Complete Works of Chinese Fine Arts", Jiangsu Publishing and Shenzhen-bound "Dunhuang Grotto Art" and Nanjing-printed "Bible", and Shanghai's "World Painting Collection" , "Si Ku Quan Shu" in Shandong and other places and "Dongba Jing" to be published in Yunnan, etc., are hardcover books processed with finer technology. There are signs that students â€™textbooks may be partly changed to hardcover or simple hardcover in recent years and shared with paperback.
2. The weight of the book borrowing paper increases
In the past, the core paper used for book borrowing was mainly 52g newsprint and letterpress paper. In recent years, in order to approach the international market and meet market demand, the weight of body paper used has gradually increased to 60-80g offset paper And some coated papers (the gram weight of paper used in the world is declining, that is, from more than 75 grams to about 65 grams, which is basically consistent with China's development). The most typical ones are the most printed student textbooks and papers for various publications. Student textbooks have long used 52 grams of letterpress paper as the main body paper for book blocks. In recent years, they have included 60-70 grams of book glue or offset paper ; Most large Sri Lankan journals mostly use offset paper and coated paper. Due to the increase in color printing on the cover, the paper has also been changed from 120-150 grams of offset paper commonly used in the past to 200-250 grams of art paper or offset paper. The increase in the weight of the paper makes the weight of the books and the booklet heavier at the same time, which brings great difficulties to the binding process, but also because of the quality of the paper ...
3. The paper size becomes larger, and the format size is included in the international standard
For decades, the paper specifications of books and books in China are mainly 787mm Ã— 1092mm or 850mm Ã— 1168mm. In recent years, in order to rely on international standards, the paper specifications used in many books have been changed to international paper formats, namely 880mm * 1230mm or 889mm Ã— 1198 (1240) mm. Therefore, the size of the book borrowing format has also been changed to the new specifications. The 16 format has been changed from 260mm Ã— 184mm or 262 Ã— 187mm to the current 297mm * 210 (208) mm; the 32 format has been changed from 184mm Ã— 130m or 203mm Ã— 140mm to the present 210mm (208 ) Mm Ã— 147mm. The format size specification has been incorporated into the international standard track. This format size is often referred to as A-type size, roughly divided into the following types:
A3 (8K) 420MM Ã— 397MM; A4 (16K) 297mm Ã— 210 (208) mm; A5 (32k) 210 (208) mm Ã— 147mm; A6 (64K) 147mm-105mm, the size of many other books have also been changed Or is changing to this standard specification.
Originally, there was no provision for format size in the national standard. The reason was that it did not conform to the international standard and could not be introduced. Because it did not conform to the international standard, it could not be introduced. Now it has been unified into the newly revised national standard.
4. Increased processing of luxury binding and special-shaped binding
The luxurious clothing is processed by the fine herring frame material and complex process technology, such as gold-rolling mouth, hot red gold foil, fake ridge, lining and other installation methods.
Published by the Zhonghua Bookstore in the mid-1990s, a luxurious version of "Twenty-four History" printed by Beijing Xinhua Printing Factory, a book cover (16K) made by a whole sheet of sheepskin after cutting and cutting the cover of the elders of the book, 24K red gold foil is used for the hot stamped handwriting and the gold mouth of the head. The thickness of the red gold foil is only 3-4um, which is extremely difficult to process, and slight negligence will cause a lot of waste. This process is a technical one. Very high complexity operation. This set of books is very delicately processed, very valuable for reading and preservation, and its price is expensive (each set is priced at 160,000 yuan). The "Bible" book printed by Nanjing Aide Printing Co., Ltd. is made of genuine leather, and the book block is closed with a zipper. The three-sided cut of the book block is rolled with aluminum alloy gold, and the semi-circular flip opening and binding are die-cut in front It's also exquisite.
There are some books and so on. Pay attention to the use of anodized aluminum often rolled gold or silver, to indicate the grade and value of this book.
Special-shaped binding refers to the use of non-standard format and processing format in the processing of the elder book. The appearance of special-shaped binding processing methods is also affected by the international trend. For example, the paperback book cover is now lined with cardboard lining, spine, sticky line pressure marks, the cover is folded into the front opening (that is, the width of the folded front opening is almost the same as the width of the book), and various styles and shapes are processed by die cutting Children's books, audio-visual images, triangular round box-shaped books, hardcover books, coats, ancient thread lettercases, etc. Another example is the "in-journal journal" in some journals, which selects paperback wireless perfect binding, and sticks a book of saddle-stitched books on the three positions. There are hardcover book blocks in Sichuan area that use chair-horse stitching, and sticking plug cloth on the fold of the back of the book, etc. Although some do not look good, they are also a new form after all.
The finishing of picture albums is more and more sophisticated than in the past. It has the characteristics of large format, fine materials and exquisite craftsmanship. For example, the fourth edition of the "Complete Collection of Chinese Calligraphy". A set of painting collections is priced at 7,600 yuan and so on. These albums have sets of letters. The cover of the sets is made of fabrics, such as pure cotton and pure hemp, etc., and the hardwoods are used to wrap the albums, which are valuable treasures of use and preservation.
The processing of luxury binding and special-shaped binding products is very different from other general binding books. When processing, not only accurate and reasonable process design and superb technical level, but also an understanding of various binding forms and methods. The experience of material preparation and use, otherwise the previous achievements will be abandoned, and serious waste will be caused.
The increase in books in various forms and processes in modern times is directly related to the market economy and the needs of readers. Book borrowing is not only a reading, but also a gift, decoration, and valuable art.
5. Paperback will replace wire binding by wireless binding
The iron wire binding process will soon be eliminated. Now and in the next ten years, the binding process of paperback books must be wireless perfect binding. At present, all students' textbooks have been replaced by wireless binding, and most paperback books are also connected by wireless binding. However, due to the short production time of hot-melt adhesives in China and the unstable quality, wireless binding The product quality of books is unstable. [next]
2. Equipment usage
Binding has changed from manual to machine in the mid-1950s, and from single-machine to linkage in the early 1970s. Binding has entered the third equipment renewal stage since the founding of the People's Republic of China in the decade since the mid-1990s. Development, market needs and close to international standards. Its characteristic is that the linkage replaces the stand-alone machine, the new stand-alone machine replaces the old stand-alone machine, and the small and medium-sized linkage equipment increases to meet the needs of modern processing.
Among the various processes in the printing industry, the variety of binding equipment, models, and forms are at the forefront. According to incomplete statistics, there are about 140 kinds of machines used for binding, and the equipment of each binding process has almost no commonality. For example, there is no commonality between folding machine and collating machine, collating machine and stapler: there is no commonality between different types of staplers and staplers (iron wire stapler and wire-locking stapler); There is no commonality between them. Almost no senior binding technician can fully grasp the binding equipment.
In recent years, there has been a large increase in linkage production lines. At present, China's post-press processing production line equipment is basically complete, with a total of 5 production lines:
1. Wireless glue binding production line
There are hundreds of wireless binding binding lines (including small, medium and large) in the country, including dozens of large ones, mainly imported from Switzerland, Germany and other countries, and some are domestically produced. The output of large-scale linkage production lines is generally more than 6000 copies per hour, and the highest is 10,000 copies (Swiss Martini 5SF type); there are hundreds of small and medium-sized units (strips), and the output per hour is generally more than 2000 copies. Small and medium-sized linkages have more equipment made in China. More than 100 sets have been purchased in more than 400 binding factories in Sanhe City, Hebei Province. It can be seen that the utilization rate of wireless perfect binding equipment is quite large.
2. Linked production line for saddle stitching
There are nearly 1,000 linked production lines for saddle stitching in the country, most of which are domestic equipment, mainly including Shanghai Ziguang's 8C, 8D and other models, with an output of 5,000 to 8,000 copies per hour.
3. Pingding linkage production line
Mainly refers to the linkage production line formed by ordering, wrapping, ironing (DBT-01 type) and collating. Due to the gradual elimination of iron wire binding, this linkage device is no longer an object of development.
4. Hardcover book linkage production line
There are more than 20 hardcover book linkage production lines in the country, mainly for the German Korbu period, followed by Swiss Martini and Italian production lines. Due to the increasing processing of hardcover books, in the past three years, China has introduced 10 German Korbusi production lines, of which the most advanced type 2000, can produce 50 hardcover books per minute, and the daily output is about 25,000. The adjustment operation is controlled by computer. Second is the compact 35, with an annual output of 2,000 copies and a daily output of 16,000 copies.
5. Linked production line of this book
This equipment is a kind of saddle stitching, flat back booklet linkage that is formed by linking dozens of processes such as marking, dividing, counting, matching cover, bookbinding, backrest, finished product, counting and dividing, output, etc. production line. At present, the only processing linkage line for this book in China is from the German Weir company. After normal operation, the output reaches 20,000 copies per hour.
There are many types of stand-alone machines for post-press binding. The main changes in recent years include folding machines and thread lockers. The folding machine has been changed from the usual full-blade type to the split-blade hybrid type in the past. For example, the imported Starr and the domestic H660 type are large-format equipment of international standards, which are suitable for modern use, fast speed, and high quality. Good and easy to adjust. The thread-locking machine is mainly domestic equipment, and some of the advanced equipment introduced can reach 160 posts per minute. Multiple matching signatures can be locked separately (up to four sets of pages can be locked). Although this device is expensive, it is very suitable for future development needs.
In addition to the major changes in the above two places, the order loading machine is also commonly used in page colliding machine, page binding machine, waxing machine, book binding machine, flattening machine, collating machine, wire stapler, glue brushing machine, hot stamping machine There are dozens of models, hundreds of models, such as printing machine, rounding machine, spine machine and book cutter. In short, the binding equipment is constantly updated with changes in technology and materials to meet the needs of modern processing.
3. Binding materials
The binding materials include book binding materials, adhesive materials and binding materials. There are many types of modern binding materials, dozens of which involve a wide range of knowledge, including animals, plants, chemical fibers, synthetic resins, and minerals. The following is a brief introduction to some new materials commonly used in recent years.
1. Cover material
How the value and grade of the book have a direct relationship with the selection of the cover material, of which the quality of the cover material occupies the main position. The processing of modern books and booklets has different requirements for cover materials than in the past. Most of the original hardcover covers were only coated with paper and lacquer. Now there are a lot of categories, such as PVC coating materials, resin impregnated pattern paper materials, and impregnation. More than ten kinds of coated patterned paper materials, resin adhesive composite materials for fabrics and papers, leather, textiles, etc.
The increase in the variety of cover materials has broadened the vision of the binding designer, increased the choice of book decoration materials, opened a new path for new and good books, and also promoted the improvement of post-press binding technology .
2. Ring lining material
The ring backing materials that have been used in hardcover books for the past few decades are offset paper and some coated papers. These papers are highly hygroscopic for ring backing, and the ring backing and book blocks are prone to wrinkles after scanning. Most hardcover books now use pattern paper impregnated with resin as the ring backing paper. This kind of paper has been processed by resin soaking, the strength and fastness of the paper are increased, and the moisture absorption is reduced. There are hundreds of varieties, patterns and colors, which can be selected at will.
3. Bonding materials
With the change of the post materials, the original flour paste of plants and bone glue of animals are far from being able to adapt to the bonding of a new generation of decorative materials. In recent years, with the development of the chemical industry and the increasing demand for mounting materials, adhesive materials have been changed from animals and plants to synthetic resins. Such as polyvinyl acetate latex (PVAC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), No. 107 glue, etc. for bonding paper and cardboard, vinyl acetate-ethylene emulsion (VAE) for bonding PVAC and paper, and paper-type composite for bonding film paper Adhesives (copolymers of acrylic resin and styrene), hot-melt adhesives (EVA) that melt at high temperature, etc., provide a wide range of choices for the bonding of various modern decorative materials. Unsuitable binders cause various binding quality problems.
There are many types of binding materials after printing, there are hundreds, and there are more than 20 types of six categories of adhesive materials alone. This article only describes a part of the types that have changed greatly in recent years to show the performance.
Post-press binding technology is actually the packaging technology of books and periodicals. The quality ultimately depends on the packaging effect to determine its merits and value, that is, the general concept of a book or the importance of the completion process of printed products. This is a new concept of contemporary post-press binding processing technology, and also a new issue for the binding industry. Post-press binding is no longer just binding and binding, but a technical and artistic process. The knowledge involved is quite extensive. If you do not seriously understand its status quo, do not understand its characteristics , It cannot adapt to modern needs.
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