Japan is the first country in the world to carry out forest ecological benefit evaluation work. In 1972, 1991 and 2000, the results of the national forest ecological service value accounting were announced by the Japanese Forest Hall. This work provides an important basis for Japan's forestry development strategy adjustment and policy decision-making. In order to learn from the experience of Japanese forest ecological service value accounting, we will further carry out research on forest resource accounting and incorporate into green GDP accounting in China. The Science and Technology Department of the State Forestry Administration organizes the calculation of China's forest resources value and incorporates into the Green GDP Research Project Team in May 2007. Japan visited and exchanged views on the 20th to 27th. The results of the investigation are reported below.
1Japan Forestry Overview
Japan is located in the eastern part of Asia. It consists of four large islands including Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku, and more than 3,000 small islands. The land area is 377,800 km2. Japan is one of the developed countries in the world. Its forestry development has experienced three stages: afforestation, wood production and multi-purpose forest use. The forestry management system and operational mechanism are more reasonable. The cultivation, protection and wood of forests are reasonable. The processing and utilization technology is advanced, and the government and the society attach great importance to the development of forestry. The public awareness of greening and environmental protection is very strong.
1.1 Overview of forest resources
The existing forest area in Japan is 25.15 million hm2, of which the natural forest area is 13.38 million hm2, accounting for 53% of the total forest area; the plantation area is 10.4 million hm2, accounting for 41% of the total forest area; the bamboo forest area is 1.37 million hm2, accounting for the forest. 6% of the total area. The forest coverage rate is 68%, and the per capita forest area is 0.2 hm2. The forest stock volume is 3.48 billion m3, of which, plantation forests account for 54% and natural forests account for 46%. The average unit volume is 138.4m3, of which the average plantation volume is as high as 183m3/hm2. At present, the annual harvest volume in Japan is 31 million m3, of which 13 million m3 is harvested from natural forests and 18 million m3 is harvested from plantations.
1.2 Forest Resources Management
There are two main forms of forest resource management in Japan: one is state-owned forests and the other is private forests. The folk forest is divided into public forests and private forests. Among the forest area, state-owned forests accounted for 31.2%, and civilian forests accounted for 68.8%, of which private forests accounted for 58.6% of the country's total forest area, accounting for 84.2% of the population. Private forests are an important part of the national forest. The Japanese government encourages investment in afforestation and carries out corresponding economic compensation. State-owned forests are all invested by the state; for private forests, state investment generally accounts for 30% to 50%, and the rest are self-raised by the foresters, and the income is distributed by the state and the foresters in a certain proportion.
In order to give full play to the versatility of forests, before 1997, Japan divided state-owned forests into four categories: First, the National Forest Protection Forest (19%), namely shelter forests, whose main purpose is to prevent soil erosion and landslides, to conserve water and protect Farmland, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry, forestry (8%), mainly to play the role of sightseeing, cultural and health care; Fourth, timber production forests (54%), the main purpose is to produce wood to meet the domestic demand for wood products. The first three are of the nature of public welfare forests.
After 1998, Japan redefined and divided state-owned forests, increasing the proportion of public welfare forests to facilitate ecological environment construction. The reclassified state-owned forests are divided into resource and environment utilization forests (19%), soil and water conservation forests (54%), and symbiotic forests (27%). Among them, except for resources and environment, other forests are public welfare forests. The overall 81%.
For a long time, Japan has adopted different management systems for different forest owners, which has played a positive role in the sustainable and stable development of forestry. The state-owned forest is directly managed by the Linye Hall of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and the prefectural government. The state can guide the operation of the forest. Under the Linye Hall, there are a forestry bureau, a camp branch, and a forestry bureau. The ownership of the people is managed and operated by the owner, and the enthusiasm of the private owners is fully mobilized. The government also encourages national afforestation through various channels to enhance forestry awareness and improve the ecological environment.
1.3 Forestry Policy and Regulations
The development and progress of Japanese forestry is inseparable from its sound forestry laws and regulations. The Forest Law was enacted in 1951 and has been revised several times in the future to make clear provisions on the preservation and maintenance of forests and the basic issues related to forests. In 1964 and 1978, the Basic Law of Forestry and the Forest Combination Law were successively formulated. The Basic Law on Forestry regulates the policy objectives of the country's development of forestry and the approach to forestry development. The Forest Combination Law aims to promote the development of forest owners' cooperative organizations, seek the improvement of the economic and social status of forest owners, and the sustainable development of forests and the enhancement of forest productivity, and contribute to the development of the national economy. The above three laws are the most important regulations in Japanese forestry. In addition, Japan has also enacted corresponding supporting and supporting regulations, such as the â€œNatural Environmental Protection Lawâ€, the â€œAfforestation Interim Measures Lawâ€, the â€œNatural Environmental Protection Lawâ€, and the â€œShushan Water Control Emergency Measures Lawâ€, etc., and implemented strictly . A sound legal system has enabled Japan's forest management and forestry production to have a legal basis and to maintain stable development.
1.4 The status of Japanese forestry in the national economy
Japanese forestry played an important role in the recovery and development of the Japanese economy after the war. However, in recent decades, with the changes in economic structure and society's demand for forestry, the status of forestry in the national economy has been declining. The share of forestry output in gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen from 0.31% in 1970 to less than 0.1% today.
Although the economic output of forestry is getting smaller and smaller, according to the results of the forest ecological service value published in 1991, the potential value of forestry is enormous: forests are conserving water sources, preventing soil erosion, preventing soil and rock collapse, health care, and protection. The total value of public welfare, such as wildlife, oxygen supply and purification of the atmosphere, is as high as 39.2 trillion yen, equivalent to 9.1% of 1990 gross domestic product (GDP). In addition, as a place of culture and entertainment, the forest can provide a wide range of recreational activities for the general public and realize the desire of mankind to return to nature. Japan's forest tourism receives nearly 200 million visitors each year, with an average of 1.6 times per person per year.
The results of the accounting have made Japanese society pay more attention to forestry, that is, the value of forests is not only reflected in traditional utilization such as wood production, but also in intangible value such as land protection, ecological environment protection and spiritual culture utilization. . These special functions of forests are difficult to replace in any other industry. For Japan, where natural disasters occur frequently, the development of the national economy and the safety of national life cannot lose forests as an important guarantee. Therefore, although the output value of forestry has decreased year by year, the Japanese government's investment in forestry has not decreased. In 2005, the Japanese government's forestry budget investment was 402.619 billion yen, accounting for 0.87% of the entire government investment budget.
2 Japan's forest ecological service value accounting
2.1 Background of carrying out the accounting of forest ecological services
During the Second World War, Japanese forests were severely damaged and devastated. There were wilderness and wasteland everywhere, and soil erosion was severe. In order to encourage national afforestation, green hills and control soil erosion, the Japanese government introduced the "Basic Forest Law" to encourage large-scale barren mountain afforestation campaigns. The area of â€‹â€‹planted forests has increased substantially, forming a forest culture dominated by plantations. . However, due to the impact of plantation management on the ecological service functions of forests, and the aging of the population, the lack of forestry labor, and the increased mechanization of timber harvesting have increased the damage to the forest environment. Therefore, the evaluation of the value of forest ecosystem services to understand the impact of these activities on the environment is growing.
At the same time, with the deepening and changing of the national understanding of forests, the demand for forests has gradually increased, and the domestic timber self-sufficiency rate has dropped (to around 20%). Domestic timber prices have been low, and forest wood production functions have been relegated. The status of the forest provides services such as purifying water quality, regulating flood peaks, providing animal habitats and shelters, providing a comfortable environment, health care, education, recreation, spirituality and culture. In particular, in recent years, the global environment has deteriorated, and the values â€‹â€‹of the people have also changed. The demand for preventing global warming, protecting biodiversity, and protecting forest landscapes has become more and more demanding, thus raising higher levels of forest management. Claim.
In order to meet the diverse needs of the people for forests and to promote the multiple functions of forests, the Forest and Livestock Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan organized the versatility of forests, including the economic evaluation of physical products and ecological services, and announced the forest to the society in 1972. The evaluation result of the ecological service value: The Japanese forest ecological service accounted for 12.82 trillion yen/year; in 1991, the forest resource accounting result was announced for the second time, and the forest ecological service accounted for 39.2 trillion yen/year. The accounting method is no different from the first one in terms of method. It is mainly based on the results of the 1972 accounting, and is adjusted by the price index. In 2000, based on the reclassification of the forest multi-function, the forest resources were re-calculated. The accounting value of forest ecological services is 74.99 trillion yen/year.
2.2 Contents and methods of forest ecological service value accounting
From the three forest ecological value calculations that have been carried out in Japan, the accounting in 2000 is a true accounting. Firstly, the 10 academic conferences held by the Japan Agriculture-Forest Multi-Evaluation Special Committee will determine the division of forest ecological functions according to the current level of understanding, discuss the framework and content of accounting, and formulate indicators and methods for accounting. Then, the Mitsubishi Research Institute of the company was commissioned for accounting, and the results of the accounting were announced by the Linye Hall.
2.2.1 Accounting content
The forest multi-functional accounting includes eight main functions, namely, biodiversity conservation function, global environmental protection function, reduction of soil erosion (to prevent debris flow disaster function/soil protection function), purification of air and noise reduction (to create a comfortable environment function), Water conservation function, health and leisure function, cultural function and material production function, among which the first seven functions are ecological service functions. These 8 main functions are further divided into 55 sub-functions. Due to insufficient basic data and lack of evaluation methods, at present, only 8 sub-functions, namely, absorbing carbon dioxide, replacing fossil fuels, preventing soil erosion, preventing mudslides, alleviating floods, storing water resources, purifying water quality and health care functions have been carried out. Value accounting.
The basic data sources are divided into three categories: one is forest resource data, which is provided by the Linye Hall based on the statistical results of the forest resource survey archives; the other is the ecological service function parameters, based on the observation of various departments' observation stations, universities, and scientific research institutions. And the comprehensive analysis and application of the research results, for some indicators that are not observed or do not meet the requirements, the local organizations supplement the survey to obtain; third, the engineering data involved in the alternative method is obtained according to the relevant statistical data and price index adjustment, forest tourism evaluation The relevant information was obtained through a questionnaire survey.
2.2.2 Accounting method
In addition to health care is assessed by the travel expense method, the other seven major functions are evaluated by the engineering substitution method, that is, the project that selects the specific functions and functions of the forest ecological service, and replaces the unit according to the annual construction cost of the project and the annual operating fee. Benefit price, in order to calculate the value of forest ecological service as the price of forest ecological benefit.
1 The value of CO2 absorption is accounted for. According to the growth of forest trees (increment of standing timber volume), the physical quantity of CO2 absorbed by forests is calculated, and then the value of CO2 absorption by forests is calculated according to the cost price of CO2 technology absorbed by the chemical method of coal firepower. That is, firstly, according to the amount of CO2 recovered and the recovery cost per year, the average cost per tCO2 is calculated, and then the cost is used as the price of CO2 absorbed by the forest, and the value of CO2 absorbed by the forest is calculated.
2 Supply O2 value accounting. The physical quantity of exhaled oxygen in the forest is calculated according to the chemical reaction formula of the forest respiration, that is, the physical quantity of exhaled oxygen is calculated by absorbing the amount of CO2, and the value of oxygen supplied to the forest is calculated by the cost price of industrially produced oxygen as the price of oxygen.
3 replace the value accounting of fossil fuel effects. Calculate the amount of CO2 released when producing wood, cement and steel in units of a building (a building area of â€‹â€‹136 m2). First, calculate the actual amount of CO2 released in the country according to the area of â€‹â€‹the timber structure, cement structure and steel structure completed in the actual year, and then convert the construction area of â€‹â€‹the timber structure into the required cement and steel, and calculate the total cement and steel used in the year. The amount of CO2 released is B. This conversion assumes that the building area and the number of buildings are the same, but the total amount of CO2 released is BA, which is the CO2 emission saved for timber structure houses.
The cost of using the chemical methods of coal-fired power plants to absorb CO2 and the amount of CO2 saved by timber-framed buildings is the value of replacing fossil fuels.
4 value accounting to prevent soil erosion. According to the annual erosion amount of forest land and no forest land per unit area, the amount of soil erosion reduced by the forest is calculated. According to the cost of the mountain management project, the price of the sand storage unit m3 is calculated, and the product of reducing the amount of soil erosion per year in the forest is the value of forest prevention of soil erosion.
5 to prevent the value of mudslide flow accounting. The value of the forest to prevent debris flow is calculated based on the area difference of the debris flow between the forest land and the non-forest land and the cost price of the debris flow project.
6 mitigation of the value of the flood accounting. The value of forest mitigation floods is calculated based on the amount of flood effluent that is reduced by forests during rainstorms compared to bare land and the cost of water conservancy projects.
7 water storage value accounting. The difference between the precipitation of forest land and the evaporation volume of canopy and trunk is the water retention of the soil infiltrated into the forest. Since the bare land also has a small amount of water retention, the water retention of the forest in the accounting should be the difference between the water storage capacity of the forest and the water storage capacity of the bare land. Calculate its value according to the alternative method of water conservancy facilities engineering.
8 Purify the value of water quality. Impurities in the rainwater in the forest zone are adsorbed and the water quality is improved. The watershed reserve is the water quality improvement, and the rainwater utilization facility replaces its price for value accounting.
9 Wildlife conservation value accounting. According to the density of forest facies in the habitat of birds and beasts and the forest area of â€‹â€‹forests, the number of birds and beasts in the forest can be derived. Then, according to the price of the artificially reared bait, the value of the wildlife protection is calculated.
10 leisure (tours) value accounting. According to the Japan Tourism Association's questionnaire survey on the natural scenery and sightseeing expenses of 3,000 (samples) male and female tourists over the age of 15 in the country, the value of forest leisure (tourism) was evaluated.
According to the number of days of tourists, it is divided into accommodation and one-day sightseeing, and the average travel cost, the sightseeing participation rate, the average number of participants, and the proportion of natural scenery sightseeing are investigated, and the ratio of forest area to natural scenery area is taken as the forest. Correction factor for tourism and sightseeing. According to the total population of the country over 15 years old, the value of national forest tourism can be calculated.
3 experience and advice
3.1 Perfect forest ecological monitoring network and unified monitoring standards
Department is the basis for carrying out the accounting of forest ecological services
Japan has established a relatively complete ecological monitoring network from the country to the locality to obtain the physical quantity data required for the accounting of forest ecological services and to realize data sharing. The monitoring of the physical quantity of forest resources in Japan is carried out by Linye Hall and Dudaofu County. Linye Hall is responsible for the monitoring of state-owned forests, and Dudaofu County is responsible for monitoring other forests.
At the national level, the Japan Forest Office is based on the Tsukuba Forest Research Institute in Japan. According to different forest ecological service functions and monitoring targets, more than 20 outlets covering the whole country have been established, and 20 years of experimental and observational historical data have been established. . In addition, some universities, research institutes and local prefectures have also set up their own ecological positioning stations. At present, there are more than 1,000 ecological positioning observation points in the country, engaged in the experiment, observation and research work of forest ecology. It mainly monitors forest carbon sequestration, acid rain, forest recreation, water conservation, human habitatability, and biodiversity. However, the basic benchmarks for experiments, observations, and research are the same, and uniform standards are determined by Japanese academic conferences, and data sharing is achieved under the coordination of the Japanese Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The Japanese government intends to establish a national ecological observation database to provide detailed data support for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
From the experience of Japan, the establishment of a national standard and benchmark unified forest ecological monitoring network system, and the realization of data resource sharing, on the one hand, can avoid the difference in monitoring results due to non-uniform standards, and the data can not be compared; on the other hand, can make full use of The existing ecological monitoring network system of various departments and institutions avoids their own battles, reduces duplication of labor and data acquisition costs, and provides a data foundation for ecological environment monitoring and forest ecological service value accounting.
3.2 Establish a unified accounting framework, content and evaluation methods to achieve Mori
Horizontal Additivity and Vertical Comparability of Forest Ecological Service Value Accounting
The accounting of the true value of ecological services in Japan has been carried out twice, in 1972 and 2000. In contrast, the accounting of forest ecosystem services in 2000 has become more sophisticated and scientific. This is mainly due to the more meticulous work they have taken. First, the Special Committee on Multi-functional Accounting for Agriculture and Forests was established under the auspices of the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan. The Special Committee has organized 10 academic conferences (equivalent to China). Academician Conference), to study the framework, content and methods of forest ecosystem service value accounting. It has identified eight aspects and 55 functions including bio-preservation function, global environmental preservation function, soil erosion reduction function, water source conservation function, comfortable environment function, health recreation function, cultural function and material production, and it has been determined that it can be quantitatively calculated. The content, at the same time, specifies the accounting method. Therefore, the accounting of the value of forest ecological services across the country will be based on the standardization of standards.
From the experience of Japan, the establishment of a unified national forest accounting framework, content and methods, on the one hand, can achieve the horizontal additivity of accounting results, that is, the calculation results of different regions according to uniform standards and methods can be added; In terms of consistency, the results of dynamic accounting are comparable because of the consistency of standards and methods.
3.3 To achieve forest ecological value assessment and accounting for decision-making and forestry
To develop services, we must establish a long-term stable professional organization and team.
The work of Japan's forest ecological value accounting is organized by the Forest Office, and the specific work is mainly commissioned by research institutions. In particular, after the unified accounting framework, contents, and methods were determined by the National Academic Conference in 2000, the specific accounting work was entrusted to the Mitsubishi Research Institute.
However, in the exchanges with relevant personnel in Japan, it is understood that there are some problems in Japan's accounting for the value of forest ecological functions, that is, the lack of stable technical personnel. Since there were no fixed personnel and institutions, and often after completing the accounting tasks at that time, the relevant research team members were disbanded. Some of the personnel who had participated in the accounting research were retired, and some were employed by the universities and research institutes. Therefore, the formation of stable teams and fixed personnel has brought difficulties to the further development of this work, which has caused waste and made the benchmarks and standards of the three accounting cases different. It is impossible to make effective comparisons, and it is difficult to effectively The management of forest resources provides the basis.
Japan's experience has a good reference for the accounting of China's forest resources. Forest resources and ecological value accounting is a highly technical and professional work. In order to carry out forest value accounting work in a long-term and effective way to make decision-making services, it is necessary to cultivate and establish specialized institutions and research teams.
3.4 Forest ecological service value accounting is a gradual improvement process
The value of forest ecological services is different in different time and space. It varies according to natural conditions, technical conditions, people's understanding and the level of social and economic development. Therefore, the accounting of the value of forest ecological services should be continuously improved as people's level of understanding, technical level and social and economic needs increase. The same is true of Japanâ€™s experience in conducting forest ecosystem service value accounting. Although Japan has already clarified that the forest has eight aspects and 55 functions, and defines the accounting framework and content of the value of forest ecological service functions, only a small part of the projects are only accounted for under the current understanding and technical level. The results of the calculations are not enough to completely change people's understanding and decision-making. According to the accounting results released in 2000, the total value of the eight forest ecological services accounted for was 74.99 trillion yen/year, which is equivalent to 14.25% of Japan's current GDP, and it is only a Toyota company's 10-year profit.
Of course, Japanese experts and relevant people also said that they will continue their efforts to carry out forest multi-functional value accounting, not only to raise people's awareness of the importance of forestry, but also to play an increasingly important role in the government's future forestry investment decision-making. effect.
Through Japan's investigation and exchange of experience, we fully realize that the accounting of the value of forest ecological services is a long-term and arduous process. Only through serious research, long-term observation, and unremitting efforts can we truly realize the accounting of the comprehensive and objective value of forest ecological services, so that we can give full play to the role of forest resource accounting and serve forestry management and decision-making.
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